Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is defined as an increase in blood pressure when values go over 140/90 mmHg. It is one of the symptoms that can appear due to hormonal therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer. To monitor hypertension, reduce as much as possible, and even avoid, the consumption of sodium, and therefore salt (sodium chloride) and follow a heart-healthy diet.


Limit the consumption of processed foods, and ready meals, and always prioritise fresh produce, as most of the sodium we consume comes from the salt added to processed foods.

Recommended and not recommended foods for hypertension
Food group advised Not advised
Cereals, pulses and by-products or derivatives Rice (white or brown), rice noodles and wheat pasta (refined or wholemeal), oatmeal, quinoa, etc.
Potato, tapioca, sweet potato.
Dried pulses (lentils, chickpeas, beans, broad beans).
Unsalted bread (wholemeal or white bread).
Bread, breadsticks, or salted crackers.
Viennese pastries and baked goods.
Chips, crisps and other snacks.
Commercial doughs and pizzas.
Pre-cooked or ready-to-eat meals.
Pre-prepared products based on pulses.
Fruits and vegetables All (cooked or raw). Canned vegetables, vegetable juices and/or canned fruit.
Packaged vegetable broths, soups or creams.
Canned fruit, packaged fruit juices.
Meat, poultry, fish and eggs Oily and white fish.
Chicken, turkey, rabbit.
Lean veal, beef, lamb, or pork (once a week, to choose from).
In moderation (maximum once a week):

  • Seafood: mussels, clams, squid, cuttlefish, prawns…
  • Canned or tinned products in their natural state and without salt: tuna, mackerel, bonito, sardines.
All types of cold meats or charcuterie: chorizo, salami, mortadella, cured ham, cooked ham, etc.
All types of canned or preserved products: tuna, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, cockles, clams, pâté, etc.
Offal: kidney, liver, brains.
Dairy products and derivatives Skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
Skimmed yoghurts with no added sugars.
Low-salt cheeses (fresh cheeses such as Burgos, and cottage cheese).
Milk curd (cuajada).
Cheeses such as Manchego, Emmental, ball, parmesan, Roquefort, mozzarella, cream cheese spreads, cheese portions, etc.
Cream, caramel puddings, custards, creams, and milkshakes. Condensed milk.
Fats Prioritize virgin olive oil.
Natural nuts and dried fruit.
Butter, margarine, mayonnaise, packaged aioli, and commercial sauces.
Salted, roasted, or fried nuts.
Drinks Still water.
Infusions, natural juices and broths without salt.
Plant milk: oat, soya, almond, etc., with no added salt.
In moderation: tea and coffee (maximum 2-3 per day, choose between them).
Carbonated water (sparkling).
Isotonic or energy drinks.
High-proof alcoholic beverages (whisky, gin, rum, etc.).
Commercial fruit juices.
Sugar and sweets 100% cocoa powder.
Chocolate with more than 70% cocoa and no sugars.
Instant cocoa powder.
Chocolate with less than 70% cocoa.
Processed baked goods and pastries.
Commercial sweets in general.
In moderation: sugar, honey, jam, homemade baked goods.
Sauces Mayonnaise-type sauces and unsalted homemade aioli. All kinds of commercial sauces: ketchup, mayonnaise, mustard, Roquefort sauce, barbecue…
Spices and seasonings Fresh or dried aromatic herbs: oregano, parsley, coriander, thyme…
Spices: cumin, cinnamon, pepper…
Spice mixtures without added salt.
Spice mixtures with added salt (some types of curries).

Cook without salt and avoid putting the salt shaker on the table. It will take some getting used to at first, but the palate will adapt. To do this:

  • Season food with aromatic spices (pepper, paprika, nutmeg, cinnamon, saffron, mustard, ginger…); herbs, both fresh and dried (rosemary, thyme, oregano, laurel, mint…); alliaceous (garlic, onion, shallot…), and citrus fruits, both juice and zest (lemon, orange, lime…).
  • Marinating meat and fish before, during (‘escabeches’…), or after cooking, with acidic sauces such as vinegar, citrus fruits, yoghurt…
  • Use cooking techniques that concentrate the flavours of food more, such as grilling, steaming, baking in the oven, ‘en papillote’, or microwaving. Make the most of the aromas generated by the cooking itself. Cooking the bones or vegetables well before making a vegetable soup or broth also gives the dish more flavour.
  • Versatile culinary tools such as aromatized or flavoured oils, mixtures of spices and sauces, or homemade dressings such as vinaigrettes help add flavour. To make them:
    • For spices or dried herbs, heat some virgin olive oil in a saucepan over low heat until slightly warm (without it burning). When it is warm, remove it from the heat, add the spices and/or dried herbs, and leave to macerate at room temperature for one or two days.
    • In the case of fresh herbs, simply chop them and mix them well with the oil or blend them directly.
  • Choose foods that, combined with others enhance the flavours: acidic (vinegar, citrus juices), sweet (jams, dried fruit, honey…), bitter (coffee or dark chocolate), umami (mushrooms, homemade meat broths, dried tomato) or combinations of these, such as sweet and sour sauces like chutneys.

Avoid vegetable salts mixed with common salt or sodium (Na), substitute salts (potassium chloride salt), monosodium glutamate or stock cubes (vegetable or meat).

Although the recommendation is to prioritise fresh and minimally processed foods, if processed foods are consumed, it is important to know the amount of salt they contain by looking at their nutritional label.
According to Regulation (EC) 1924/2006 on nutritional claims on food labelling, a product can be considered low in salt if it contains less than 0.3 g of salt per 100 g or 100 ml (or 0.12 g of sodium per 100 g or 100 ml).

Hyperlipaemia is a symptom that often occurs together with hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. This phenomenon is called metabolic syndrome and different aspects should be considered to ensure adequate nutrition.